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Geophagus   is a genus of freshwater fish from the cichlid family (Cichlidae). They are popular fish in the aquarium hobby due to their interesting behavior and attractive appearance. Here is a description of the genus Geophagus:

Appearance: Fish of the genus Geophagus usually have oval and slightly laterally flattened bodies. They are characterized by beautiful colors and patterns that can include spots, stripes and spots. Their appearance can vary significantly depending on the species and environmental conditions.

Size: Geophaguses vary in size depending on the species, but most of them reach a length of several to several centimeters.

Behavior: Fish of the genus Geophagus are known for their curious behavior, including digging in the substrate. They are also territorial and caring for their offspring. They are social fish that can be kept in groups, but it is important to provide them with enough space and the right conditions.

Habitat: Geophagus are native to South America, mainly in the Amazon Basin and nearby rivers and lakes. Their habitat ranges from calm waters to areas with slightly moving currents.

Diet: These fish are omnivorous, meaning they eat both plant and animal food. In the wild, their diet may include insects, larvae, small fish, algae, and other small organisms. In the aquarium, they can be fed a variety of foods such as flakes, pellets, frozen foods, and live foods.

Water conditions: Geophagus prefer warm and clear water with stable parameters. The water should be slightly acidic to neutral in pH and the temperature should be around 24 to 28°C.

Aquarium: To keep Geophagus in an aquarium, it is important to provide a suitable substrate that will allow them to dig. Plants, roots and stones can also serve as hiding places and territories. Large aquariums are usually more suitable for these fish due to their natural behavior.

Reproduction: Some species of Geophagus are custodians of the parents and lay their eggs on flat surfaces or dig holes in the substrate. Taking care of the offspring is an important aspect of their behavior.

Geophagus includes many species with different requirements and characteristics. When choosing Geophagus for your aquarium, it is important to thoroughly familiarize yourself with the specific species and provide it with appropriate conditions and care.




Corydoras is a genus of freshwater bottom fish of the family Callichthyidae. These fish are commonly called "corydoras catfish" or simply "corycas". They are popular with aquarium hobbyists because of their small size, calm behavior, and unique appearance.

Here are some key features and information about corydoras catfish:

Appearance: Corydoras catfish are characterized by flattened bodies, carapace plates and whiskers (sensory organs similar to whiskers) around the snout. They have a variety of colors and patterns that can include spots, stripes, and mottled patterns.

Size: Most species of corydoras catfish are relatively small, typically reaching around 5-10 cm in length, depending on the specific species.

Behavior: Catfish corydoras are social and peaceful fish that are best kept in groups. They are known for their playful and active behavior and can often be seen searching the bottom of the aquarium for food.

Habitat: These beautiful fish are native to South America, especially the Amazon River basin and its tributaries. They inhabit slow-moving waters, including rivers, streams and floodplains.

Diet: Corydoras catfish are omnivorous, meaning they eat a combination of plant matter and small aquatic organisms. In the aquarium, they can be fed a varied diet that includes high-quality sinking pellets, flakes, frozen or live foods, and even some plant matter.

Aquarium care: When keeping corydoras catfish in an aquarium, it is important to provide them with a well-maintained aquarium. They prefer a sandy or fine gravel substrate as their sensitive whiskers can be damaged on sharp surfaces. Proper hiding places, plants and decorations should be provided to create a comfortable environment.

Water Parameters: Corydoras catfish are relatively adaptable to a variety of water conditions, but prefer a slightly acidic to neutral pH (around 6.0-7.5) and a temperature range of 72 to 78°F (22 to 26°C).

Reproduction: Breeding Corydoras catfish can be a rewarding experience for advanced aquarium hobbyists. They are oviparous fish, and many species lay their eggs on flat surfaces or plants. The parents do not care for the eggs, so it is important to transfer the eggs to a separate rearing aquarium to ensure their survival.

There are many species within the genus Corydoras, each with its own unique characteristics and care requirements. Popular species include Corydoras paleatus (pepper catfish), Corydoras aeneus (brown catfish) and Corydoras panda (panda catfish).

When considering adding corydoras catfish to your aquarium, it's important to thoroughly research the specific species you're interested in and provide the proper care to ensure their health and well-being.



Feeding aquarium fish is an essential aspect of their care, and the choice of fish food plays a key role in their health and well-being. Soft pellets have gained popularity as a nutritious and convenient feeding option for aquarium fish. This article examines the benefits of using soft pellets as the primary feed for aquarium fish, emphasizing their nutritional value, ease of use and health impact.

Complete and balanced nutrition:

The soft pellets are specially formulated to provide a complete and balanced diet for aquarium fish. They are usually fortified with essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals to support optimal growth, coloration and overall vitality of the fish. High-quality soft pellets contain a mixture of proteins, carbohydrates and fats, reflecting the natural diet of wild fish. This ensures that aquarium fish receive the necessary nutrients for proper development and to maintain a strong immune system.

Improved digestibility:

The soft granules have been developed to be easily digestible for aquarium fish. The pellets are usually small and break down easily, making them suitable for fish of all sizes, including juveniles and adult fish with smaller mouths. The soft consistency of the granules allows the fish to eat easily, reducing the risk of choking or digestive problems. The digestibility of the soft granules ensures that the fish absorbs and utilizes the nutrients effectively, minimizing the production of waste.

Reduced Water Pollution:

One of the significant advantages of using soft pellets as fish feed is their minimal impact on water quality. Unlike some other types of fish food, soft granules have a low tendency to dissolve quickly, which reduces the risk of water cloudiness or excessive waste build-up. This helps maintain cleaner water conditions in the aquarium, promoting a healthier environment for the fish.

Versatile feeding options:

Soft granules provide versatility in feeding aquarium fish. They can be easily introduced into the aquarium, allowing the fish to eat at their own pace. This flexibility covers a wide variety of fish, including surface-dwelling, midwater-feeding and bottom-dwelling species.

Convenient and time-saving:

Feeding aquarium fish with soft pellets is a convenient and time-saving option for aquarists. Unlike live or frozen food, soft granules have a longer shelf life and do not require special storage conditions. They can be easily portioned and fed several times a day or according to the specific nutritional requirements of the fish species. Additionally, the soft granules eliminate the need to prepare or handle live food, reducing the risk of introducing unwanted pathogens or parasites into the aquarium.


Soft granules ensure nutritious and convenient feeding of aquarium fish. They offer complete and balanced nutrition, facilitate digestion and minimize water pollution. Thanks to their versatility and ease of use, soft granules provide fish with access to essential nutrients, while saving fish farmers time. When choosing fish food for your aquarium, soft pellets are an excellent choice to support the health, growth and vibrant colors of your fish.



Essential Minerals Salt for Freshwater Aquariums: Nurturing a Balanced Aquatic Environment

Maintaining a healthy and balanced freshwater aquarium requires careful consideration of the water parameters, including the presence of essential minerals. Minerals play a crucial role in supporting the overall well-being of aquarium fish and plants. This article explores the importance of using mineral salts in freshwater aquariums, highlighting their benefits in promoting fish health, plant growth, and water stability.

Mineral Enrichment:

Freshwater aquariums often lack certain essential minerals necessary for the optimal health of fish and plants. Mineral salts, such as aquarium-specific formulations or products like Discus Minerales, help replenish these minerals, ensuring a well-rounded aquatic environment. These salts typically contain a blend of vital elements like calcium, magnesium, potassium, and trace elements that are beneficial for aquatic life.

pH Stability:

Mineral salts can play a crucial role in maintaining a stable pH level in the aquarium. The presence of certain minerals helps buffer the water, preventing rapid fluctuations in pH that can be detrimental to fish and plants. Maintaining a stable pH range is essential as sudden pH swings can stress or harm the inhabitants of the aquarium. By providing a natural buffering capacity, mineral salts contribute to a more stable and favorable pH environment.

Promoting Fish Health:

Essential minerals provided by mineral salts are vital for fish health and vitality. For example, calcium is necessary for the development of fish bones and scales, while magnesium is essential for metabolic processes and osmoregulation. Adequate levels of minerals in the water support fish immune systems, reducing the risk of diseases and promoting overall well-being. By ensuring a proper mineral balance, mineral salts contribute to the long-term health and longevity of aquarium fish.

Encouraging Plant Growth:

In planted freshwater aquariums, mineral salts are essential for healthy plant growth. Plants require specific minerals, such as potassium and iron, for processes like photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and root development. The presence of these minerals in the water column helps plants thrive, leading to improved oxygenation, nutrient uptake, and a more aesthetically pleasing aquarium. Mineral salts aid in preventing nutrient deficiencies that can hinder plant growth and lead to algae outbreaks.

Water Hardness and Ion Balance:

Mineral salts play a crucial role in establishing and maintaining appropriate water hardness and ion balance in the aquarium. Hardness refers to the concentration of dissolved minerals in the water, while ions are electrically charged particles that affect water quality. Proper mineral levels help achieve the desired hardness and ion balance for specific fish species or plants, replicating their natural habitat conditions. This promotes overall comfort, health, and breeding success for the inhabitants of the aquarium.


Incorporating mineral salts into freshwater aquariums is essential for creating a balanced and thriving aquatic environment. These salts enrich the water with essential minerals, stabilize pH levels, promote fish health, support plant growth, and maintain proper water hardness and ion balance. By addressing mineral deficiencies, aquarists can provide a more natural and optimal environment for their fish and plants. When establishing and maintaining a freshwater aquarium, incorporating mineral salts is a crucial step toward creating a healthy and vibrant ecosystem.



Fish food in flakes offers several benefits for both fish owners and the fish themselves. Here are some advantages of using fish food in flakes:

Convenience: Flake food is easy to handle and feed to fish. It comes in pre-packaged containers and can be easily dispensed into the aquarium. The flakes float on the water's surface, making them readily accessible to the fish.

Balanced Nutrition: Flake food is formulated to provide a balanced diet for fish. It typically contains a mix of protein, vitamins, minerals, and other essential nutrients that support the overall health and well-being of fish. The ingredients are carefully selected to meet the dietary needs of different fish species.

Variety: Fish food flakes are available in a wide range of formulations and flavors. This variety allows fish owners to choose specific types of flakes that cater to the nutritional requirements of their fish. Some flakes are designed for herbivorous or omnivorous fish, while others are formulated for carnivorous species.

Enhanced Digestibility: Fish food flakes are usually manufactured to be highly digestible for fish. The flakes are made to break down easily in water, making it easier for fish to consume and digest the food. This helps in maximizing nutrient absorption and reducing waste production.

Reduced Water Pollution: Flake food is designed to be consumed quickly by fish, minimizing the amount of uneaten food that can accumulate in the aquarium. Excessive food waste can lead to water pollution, affecting water quality and potentially harming the fish. Flake food allows for precise portion control, reducing the risk of overfeeding and maintaining better water conditions.

Economical: Flake food is generally more affordable compared to other types of fish food, such as frozen or live foods. It provides a cost-effective option for feeding fish while still providing essential nutrients.

While fish food flakes offer numerous benefits, it's important to note that they should not be the sole source of nutrition for all fish species. Some fish may require a varied diet that includes live or frozen foods to meet their specific dietary needs. It's best to research the dietary requirements of your fish species and consult with experts to ensure a well-rounded and balanced diet for your aquatic pets.



Fulvic acid is a 100% natural substance with a complex of essential minerals and vitamins.

It is also a natural cell regenerator and a strongly alkalizing substance of plant origin. With over 70 minerals, vitamins, electrolytes and organic acids, it is able to penetrate cell membranes and deliver all these nutrients directly to the cell. In addition to eliminating heavy metals, its molecular composition helps initiate the regeneration process in each cell. No other substance works on these three levels. In addition, fulvic acid is 100% natural and has not been altered or chemically preserved. It does not contain any additives, stabilizers or preservatives. Its high, alkaline pH makes it naturally preserved! After using fulvic acid, the germination of fungi, bacteria and other pathogens is simply impossible in it!

What exactly does it do?

The main function of fulvic acid is to nourish every cell of the body by providing it with minerals and vitamins, electrolytes and organic acids. Colloquially, we can call it a natural "transporter".

How is it with aquariums?

Crystal clear, undisturbed water in the aquarium - is not always an ideal condition for fish, other living organisms and plants. There is information among aquarists, sometimes less precise, that the use of fulvic acids in water promotes the health of fish and plants. We will try to present it in a simple way how it really is, where they come from and what impact they have on the inhabitants of your aquarium. Do they work or are they ok or maybe not……. How do they affect the quality of water, do they prevent diseases when added to it, does it strengthen the immune system of aquatic organisms, and even stimulate spawning? 

Humic substances

Fulvic acids belong to the group of humic substances. Humic substances with a high molecular weight are formed in the process of humification - i.e. decomposition of organic, mainly plant material. Humic substances and fulvic acids are abundant in all the waters of the world. Particularly high concentrations are found in the black rivers of the Amazon. This is where they play an important role: the pH value of the black rivers is only 3 or 4, and the mineral deficiency is huge - not a good basis for animal life. Only due to the presence of humic substances, small amounts of nutrients are present in a complex form, which plants and animals can absorb more effectively.

Fulvic acids are ubiquitous in nature

Humic substances - and therefore also fulvic acids - occur in all ecosystems of the world. In most inland waters, the ratio of humic substances to organisms is 10:1 - in seawater even 100:1. It can therefore be assumed that fish and aquatic plants are accustomed to the presence of humic substances and fulvic acids, which are necessary for optimal development. Particularly for animals from blackwater habitats, they are actually essential for survival.

Nice theory, but what about practice or maybe some credibility?

Aquatic ecologist Dr. Christian Steinberg from the Humboldt University of Berlin has been conducting research on the effect of fulvic acids in aquaculture for years. According to his findings, fulvic acids exert a slight, permanent chemical stress on organisms, which produces a vaccination-like effect. This causes multiple resistance to stress in animals, which, among other things, may have an impact on extending life - they become more resistant to destructive environmental influences and potential causes of diseases.

Steinberg and his team also observed that fish and other aquarium inhabitants became more colorful, produced more offspring, were generally healthier, and recovered from ailments more quickly. Details are outlined on the university website for review and analysis.

Fulvic acids – universal agents for water, plants and animals

The use of humic substances in general and fulvic acids in particular also has a positive effect on the water itself. They act as a natural pH buffer and thus prevent, for example, a shift in the material balance related to the pH value at low carbonate hardness (KH). But it should be noted here that it will never act as a long-term buffer in RO water.

Aquarium plants benefit from the comprehensive properties of fulvic acid as natural ligands: It binds and precipitates heavy metals while increasing the availability of important nutrients such as iron. Nitrogen and phosphorus can also be better absorbed by plants.

Fulvic acids – Benefits:

  • Provides living organisms with more elements necessary for life compared to unsupplemented water,
  • Improves the absorption of trace elements from the water into the fish's body
  • Improves the quality and quantity of hatching eggs,
  • Increase progeny survival through prophylactic treatment of eggs and larvae
  • Positive effect on fish's immune system
  • Blocks secondary infection
  • Improve fish condition through high stress resistance
  • Poprawia kondycję ryb dzięki wysokiej odporności na stres

Humin Fulvic – Aquarium preparation is also great for supplementing minerals, but in addition to humic compounds contains fulvic acid, has a dark brown color is odorless, does not affect the pH in the tank where it is applied:

Fulvic acid +/- 20%

pH 8,0 – 8,4

Calcium (Ca) 0.6 g / l

Sodium (Na) 33.6 g / l

Iron (Fe) 112 mg / l

Manganese (Mn) 3 mg / l

Magnesium (Mg) 58 mg / l

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